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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

Citation Style Guide

This guide provides assistance in citing sources when writing an academic paper. There are various styles which format the information differently in order to give credit to the people whose words or ideas you are using. Click on one of the blue tabs to access descriptions of each citation style featured in this guide along with links to online resources for citing and a few examples.

What is a Citation and Citation Style?

citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifer). A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.

How to Choose a Citation Style?

There are many different ways of citing resources from your research. The citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:

  • APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
  • Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts

*You will need to consult with your professor to determine what is required in your specific course.

Click the links below to find descriptions of each style along with a sample of major in-text and bibliographic citations, links to books in PittCat, online citation manuals, and other free online resources.

Adapted from:

University of Pittsburgh. (2021). Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE. Retrieved December 22, 2021, from https://pitt.libguides.com/citationhelp/overview.