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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

APA Style Resources, 7th Edition

APA style is a set of guidelines created to help writers express their ideas and researching clearly and consistently. APA style was created by the American Psychological Association and it is used in the social sciences, sciences, and health sciences. Specific programs that use APA at CSS include psychology, nursing, management, education, physical therapy, occupational therapy, project management, CIS, as well as other programs. Check with your program director or course instructor to see what citation style should be used in your courses. To assist you with writing in APA Style, the American Psychological Association published the APA Manual, 7th edition. 


Material Type

In-text Citation


A book

(Sapolsky, 2017)

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Chapter in an edited book

(If the chapter is from an authored book, use the book citation)

(Dillard, 2020) Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

An article in a print journal

(Weinstein, 2009)

Weinstein, J. (2009). “The market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology104(4), 439-458. 

An article in an electronic journal

 (Grady et al., 2019)

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture8(3), 207–217.

A website

(Bologna, 2019)

Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies. HuffPost.

Most of these examples came from the Reference Examples page on the APA website. Use the same format for print books and ebooks. For ebooks, the format or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.

Adapted from:

University of Pittsburgh. (2021). Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE. Retrieved December 22, 2021, from